Smooth Sliding offers training courses and seminars for engineers, mechanics, sales managers and other professionals dealing with engine bearings. The courses/seminars are conducted by Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich in form of intensive interactive training including examination of samples of actual engine bearings of different design, materials application and analyses of typical bearing failures. The courses provide the participants with advanced principal and practical knowledge in all aspects of engine bearing operation. Subject of the course:
Engine Bearings – principles of operation, design, materials, tests, failure analyses and investigations.
Upon course completion, participants will be awarded Course Completion Certificates issued by SmoothSliding and signed by Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich.
Courses may be held at at the customers facilities, or at Smooth Sliding. Number of participants is not limited.

Two day program


First day (8 hrs.)

    • Basics of hydrodynamic lubrication and hydrodynamic bearing
      • Hydrodynamic force
      • Hydrodynamic bearing
      • Thermodynamics of combustion process in a cylinder. Calculations of combustion pressure in a cylinder. Effect on bearings.
      • Inertia forces and their effect on bearing.
      • Calculations of hydrodynamics of lubrication. Calculation of min. oil film thickness, coefficient of hydrodynamic friction, energy loss, oil pressure distribution, oil flow.

  • Geometry of Engine bearings (design, effect on operation, calculation)

    • Oil clearance – basic parameter of hydrodynamic bearing
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil pressure distribution
      • Effect of oil clearance on min. oil film thickness (MOFT)
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil temperature rise
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil flow
      • Effect of oil viscosity on MOFT at different clearances
      • Optimization of oil clearance
      • Effect of rotation speed on optimal value of clearance

    • Eccentricity of Engine Bearings
      • Lemon shape boring
      • Eccentricity definition and measurement methods
      • Retention of a wedge shaped oil gap despite housing distortions
      • Effect of eccentricity on MOFT
      • Effect of eccentricity on oil flow rate
      • Effect of eccentricity on oil pressure distribution

    • Crush height
      • Definition and the method of measurement
      • Purposes of crush height and optimal values
      • Effect of crush height on contact pressure
      • Effect of housing material
      • Effect of temperature on the bearing-housing contact pressure
      • Effect of housing rigidity on bearing-housing contact pressure
      • Effect of bearing thickness on bearing-housing contact pressure

  • Undesizes

    • Crush relief
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions and measurement
      • Problems

    • Locating lug/notch
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions and measurement
      • Problems

    • Oil groove
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions
      • Possible problems
      • Design issues (shape, depth)
      • Effect of oil groove design on bearing loading
      • Effect of oil groove design on oil pressure distribution
      • Effect of oil groove design on MOFT

    • Oil hole
      • Purpose
      • Design issues
      • Effect on bearing operation and possible problems

    • Bearing Housing
      • Diameter tolerance. Effect on contact pressure and compression stress.
      • Effect of rigidity and roundness on hydrodynamic lubrication
      • Effect of surface finish on bearing operation
      • Effect of misalignment on bearings operation

  • Engine Bearing Materials

  • Lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, mixed boundary)

  • Conditions of lubrication in actual bearings

  • Properties and requirements to engine bearing materials

  • Structure of engine bearings (bi-metallic, tri-metallic, aluminum base, copper base)

    • Bi-metal bearings
      • Characterization of bi-metallic aluminum materials (microstructure, composition)
      • Properties of bi-metal aluminum materials
      • Aluminum materials with overlays

    • Conventional tri-metal bearings
      • Characterization of conventional tri-metallic materials (microstructure, composition)
      • Leaded overlays (types, compositions, properties)
      • Effect of overlay thickness on its fatigue strength
      • Properties of conventional tri-metal bearings

    • Sputter bearings
      • Engine applications required high strength bearings
      • Characterization of Sputter bearings (microstructure, composition)
      • Sputtering technology
      • Properties of Sputter bearings

    • Silver bearings
      • Characterization of Silver bearings (microstructure, composition)
      • Properties of Silver bearings
      • Comparison of Sputter and Silver bearings

    • Polymer coatings
      • Purpose of polymer coatings and major applications
      • Requirements to properties of polymer coatings
      • Composition of polymer coatings (matrix, solid lubricants, ceramic additives)
      • Performance of polymer coatings at different substrates and applications
      • Effect of polymer coatings on bearings properties

Second day (8 hrs.)

  • Engine bearings failures and failure analysis

    • Engine design features and their effects on bearings operation
      • Volumetric efficiency
      • Forced induction (turbocharging, supercharging)
      • Compression ratio
      • Stroke-bore ratio
      • Rotation speed
      • Oil viscosity
      • Diesel vs. gasoline
      • Hybrid and start-stop engines
      • Downsizing
      • Requirements to bearing materials in modern engines

  • Failure modes of engine bearings (characterization, appearance, causes, corrective actions)

    • Fatigue of bearing materials
      • Fatigue of metals
      • General causes of bearing fatigue and corrective actions
      • Fatigue of aluminum lining of bi-metal bearings
      • Fatigue of overlays of tri-metal bearings
      • Fatigue of bronze lining

    • Seizure
      • Metallurgy of seizure
      • Possible causes
      • Corrective actions

    • Wear
      • Possible causes
      • Types of wear
      • Corrective actions
      • Edge wear
      • Wear due to Imperfect journal geometry

    • Cavitation erosion
      • Description of cavitation effect
      • Possible causes of cavitation erosion of engine bearings, corrective actions

  • Spinning in housing (possible causes and corrective actions

  • Fatigue in area of crush relief (possible causes and corrective actions)

    • Test Rigs
      • Hydraulic loading Test Rig
      • Inertia loading Test Rig
      • Test conditions
      • Parameters of bearing performance estimated in Test Rigs

    • Examples of various bearing failures and failure analysis of each case
      • different actual types of engine bearing failures will be presented and analyzed)

  • Examples of actual comprehensive detailed investigation of engine bearings geometry, dimensions, materials structure, defects, compositions and complex analysis of failure mode of bearings

One day program


8 hrs.

    • Basics of hydrodynamic lubrication and hydrodynamic bearing
      • Hydrodynamic force
      • Hydrodynamic bearing
      • Thermodynamics of combustion process in a cylinder. Calculations of combustion pressure in a cylinder. Effect on bearings.
      • Inertia forces and their effect on bearing.
      • Calculations of hydrodynamics of lubrication. Calculation of min. oil film thickness, coefficient of hydrodynamic friction, energy loss, oil pressure distribution, oil flow.

  • Geometry of Engine bearings (design, effect on operation, calculation)

    • Oil clearance – basic parameter of hydrodynamic bearing
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil pressure distribution
      • Effect of oil clearance on min. oil film thickness (MOFT)
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil temperature rise
      • Effect of oil clearance on oil flow
      • Effect of oil viscosity on MOFT at different clearances
      • Optimization of oil clearance
      • Effect of rotation speed on optimal value of clearance

    • Eccentricity of Engine Bearings
      • Lemon shape boring
      • Eccentricity definition and measurement methods
      • Retention of a wedge shaped oil gap despite housing distortions
      • Effect of eccentricity on MOFT
      • Effect of eccentricity on oil flow rate
      • Effect of eccentricity on oil pressure distribution

    • Crush height
      • Definition and the method of measurement
      • Purposes of crush height and optimal values
      • Effect of crush height on contact pressure
      • Effect of housing material
      • Effect of temperature on the bearing-housing contact pressure
      • Effect of housing rigidity on bearing-housing contact pressure
      • Effect of bearing thickness on bearing-housing contact pressure

  • Undesizes

    • Crush relief
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions and measurement
      • Problems

    • Locating lug/notch
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions and measurement
      • Problems

    • Oil groove
      • Purpose
      • Dimensions
      • Possible problems
      • Design issues (shape, depth)
      • Effect of oil groove design on bearing loading
      • Effect of oil groove design on oil pressure distribution
      • Effect of oil groove design on MOFT

    • Oil hole
      • Purpose
      • Design issues
      • Effect on bearing operation and possible problems

    • Bearing Housing
      • Diameter tolerance. Effect on contact pressure and compression stress.
      • Effect of rigidity and roundness on hydrodynamic lubrication
      • Effect of surface finish on bearing operation
      • Effect of misalignment on bearings operation

  • Engine Bearing Materials

  • Lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, mixed boundary)

  • Conditions of lubrication in actual bearings

  • Properties and requirements to engine bearing materials

  • Structure of engine bearings (bi-metallic, tri-metallic, aluminum base, copper base)

    • Bi-metal bearings
      • Characterization of bi-metallic aluminum materials (microstructure, composition)
      • Properties of bi-metal aluminum materials
      • Aluminum materials with overlays

    • Conventional tri-metal bearings
      • Characterization of conventional tri-metallic materials (microstructure, composition)
      • Leaded overlays (types, compositions, properties)
      • Effect of overlay thickness on its fatigue strength
      • Properties of conventional tri-metal bearings

    • Sputter bearings
      • Engine applications required high strength bearings
      • Characterization of Sputter bearings (microstructure, composition)
      • Sputtering technology
      • Properties of Sputter bearings

    • Silver bearings
      • Characterization of Silver bearings (microstructure, composition)
      • Properties of Silver bearings
      • Comparison of Sputter and Silver bearings

    • Polymer coatings
      • Purpose of polymer coatings and major applications
      • Requirements to properties of polymer coatings
      • Composition of polymer coatings (matrix, solid lubricants, ceramic additives)
      • Performance of polymer coatings at different substrates and applications
      • Effect of polymer coatings on bearings properties

    • Engine bearings failures and failure analysis

      • Engine design features and their effects on bearings operation
        • Volumetric efficiency
        • Forced induction (turbocharging, supercharging)
        • Compression ratio
        • Stroke-bore ratio
        • Rotation speed
        • Oil viscosity
        • Diesel vs. gasoline
        • Hybrid and start-stop engines
        • Downsizing
        • Requirements to bearing materials in modern engines

    • Failure modes of engine bearings (characterization, appearance, causes, corrective actions)

      • Fatigue of bearing materials
        • Fatigue of metals
        • General causes of bearing fatigue and corrective actions
        • Fatigue of aluminum lining of bi-metal bearings
        • Fatigue of overlays of tri-metal bearings
        • Fatigue of bronze lining

      • Seizure
        • Metallurgy of seizure
        • Possible causes
        • Corrective actions

      • Wear
        • Possible causes
        • Types of wear
        • Corrective actions
        • Edge wear
        • Wear due to Imperfect journal geometry

      • Cavitation erosion
        • Description of cavitation effect
        • Possible causes of cavitation erosion of engine bearings, corrective actions

    • Spinning in housing (possible causes and corrective actions

    • Fatigue in area of crush relief (possible causes and corrective actions)


      • Examples of various bearing failures and failure analysis of each case
        • different actual types of engine bearing failures will be presented and analyzed)

    • Examples of actual comprehensive detailed investigation of engine bearings geometry, dimensions, materials structure, defects, compositions and complex analysis of failure mode of bearings